Trachoma Trachoma is infection of eye caused by bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. This infection is causes roughening of inner surface of eyelids. It may cause vision loss and blindness. Etiology 1. Contact with discharge from the eyes 2. Nose of an infected person 3. Direct contact with Hands, clothing, towels and insects Clinical Manifestations 1. Itching and Irritation of eyes and eyelids 2. Watering 3. Mucopurulent discharge from eyes 4. Blurred vision 5. Eye pain 6. Photophobia 7. Swelling eyelids Pathogenesis Bacterial infection of the eyes
Yaws Yaws infection caused by Treponema pallidum pertenue that affects skin, bone, cartilage and joints. Yaws is chronic bacterial skin infection that characterized as a lump or papilloma, usually occurs in limbs (arms or legs). Yaws is not a sexually transmitted disease. Etiology 1. Skin-to-skin contact with infective lesion of people Clinical Manifestation 1. Sore on the skin 2. Multiple cauliflower eruption 3. Swelling and bone pain 4. Disfigure bones and skin Lab Diagnosis 1. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) 2. Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA)
Types of Gangrane 1. Dry gangrene Dry gangrane occurs in those area where the blood flow to body becomesblocked. Dry gangrane occurs most commonly occur in those people who have diabetes or blood vessel disease, such as atherosclerosis. 2. Wet gangrane Wet gangrane is caused due to injury and bacterial infection. Gas gangrane is type of wet gangrane. Gas gangrane Gas gangrane infection develops deep inside the body and the bacteria releasing the gas that that area has no blood supply. Bacteria logged in an
Types of HIV Diagnostic Tests There are three types of HIV tests available- 1. Nucleic acid tests (NAT)2. Antigen/antibody tests – If you have HIV, an antigen called p24 is produced even before antibodies develop.3. Antibody tests – ELISA (EIA) and Western Blot Know the modes of transmission of HIV/AIDS and incubation period, sign and symptoms of HIV/AIDS. HIV tests are typically performed on blood or oral fluid. 1. Nucleic acid tests (NAT) Collect sample – blood from a vein NAT lab test is blood tests used to detect the genetic material of viruses and bacteria blood.
Human immunodeficiency virus/ Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome The full form of HIV is Human immunodeficiency virus and full form of AIDS is Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Human immunodeficiency virus attacks the immune system cell (CD4 helper cell or T cell) and destroys. If HIV infection is not treated, it can lead to Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In Humans HIV infection came from a type of chimpanzee in Central Africa. Currently there is no effective cure of HIV means once individual get HIV infection, it for have lifetime. People with HIV infection only
Salmonella – Salmonellosis Human Salmonellosis infection is distributed world-wide problem. Salmonellosis infection caused by a bacteria called Salmonella. Salmonella infection or salmonellosis is a common bacterial infection that affects the intestinal tract of man and animals. Salmonella bacteria typically live in animal and human intestines and bacteria are shed through feces. Humans become infected most frequently through ingesting contaminated water or food. People with salmonella infection symptoms develop diarrhea, fever, and abdominal cramps within 6 to 72 hours. Epidemiological Triad Agent– the causative agent of salmonella bacteria is called salmonella. The
Leptospirosis – Weil’s Disease Leptospirosis is an infectious disease (septicemia) caused by the bacteria spirochete Leptospira. Leptospirosis primarily affects animals and occasionally infects humans. This bacterial disease spread through the urine of infected animals. Pathogenic spirochete of the genus leptospira that have two species- 1. Leptospira interrogans and 2. Leptospira Biflexa Leptospirosis infectious causative organisms carried by many domestic animals and wild animals, most commonly rodents and lives in their kidneys. Humans get leptospirosis, infected through direct contact with urine from animals or through water, food or soil contaminated with their urine. Without treatment, leptospirosis
Bacillus Anthracis (Anthrax) Anthrax isinfectious disease caused by the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. The word “anthrax” is derived from the Greek word for “coal” or “black” because of the characteristic coal-black sore. It causes dark, coal-like structure on affected areas. Anthrax mainly affects animals. People get infected through contact with an infected animal or by inhaling spores of bacterium. It can cause severe disease in both humans and animals. Koch uses Bacillus anthracis as the model to develop his famous Koch Postulates. Epidemiological Triad Agent – The causative agent of Anthrax by gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria Bacillus anthracis.
Plague (Black Death) Plague is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium, bacillus Yersinia pestis, usually found in small mammals and their fleas that affect humans and other mammals. Plague disease is spread between animals via their fleas and it can transmit from animals to humans. Humans usually become infected with plague after bitten by a rodent flea that is carrying the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis or by handling an infected animal with plague. Plague is also known as “Black death”. Epidemiological Triad Agent – The causative agent of Plaque disease
Brucellosis – Mediterranean Fever Brucellosis is a infectious bacterial disease caused by various Brucella species. Animals are the most commonly infected include sheep, cattle, goats, swine, pigs, and dogs and infection transmitted from animals to people. Humans become infected with brucellosis disease through direct contact with infected animals, or by ingesting and drinking contaminated animal products or by breathe airborne agents with the bacteria. People mostly get infection by consuming unpasteurized dairy products. Epidemiological Triad Agent – Brucellosis is caused by Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, Brucella suis, Brucella canis, in the family Brucellaceae. Host –